Our approach to operational resilience is preventive. We advocate zero tolerance for disruptions.
Our method is to continually increase operational resilience by systematically mining beyond the known-knowns Methods and known-knowns Faults to extend the coverage of operational resilience.
We leave no stone unexplored, even if seemingly unimportant. This seemingly unimportant stone, as ICT adopts the characteristics of a complex system, may be the cause of an unexplained major disruption.
Operational Resilience in Industry 4.0
Industry 4.0 is the idea of smart factories in which machines are augmented with web connectivity and connected to a system that can visualize the entire production chain and make decisions on its own*.
These smart factories are heavily dependent on the underpinning information and communications technologies (ICT) for their proper operation. Thus, increasing their vulnerability to disruption from ICT faults. There is, therefore, a need for a corresponding increase in the effectiveness of management visibility and decision in Industry 4.0. This is operational resilience for smart factories.
Contrast the difference in approach of a bus driver when the bus develops a fault with an aircraft pilot when a fault occurs in the aircraft during flight.
The bus driver is trained to park the bus safely and the passengers wait to carry on their journey in following buses. The driver then waits for the tow truck.
In contrast, when a fault occurs in an aircraft, the pilot is trained and ready to continue flying. The pilot and co-pilot are assisted by instrumentation and checklists to diagnose and overcome the disruption to continue flying and eventually land safely.
A smart factory is very much like a modern airliner. A modern aircraft is a sophisticated system of complex, interdependent digital and mechanical technology that automates flying of the aircraft. Yet a pilot trains and prepares to be able to continue to fly the aircraft in the unlikely event of a disruption.
The financial impact of a disruption increases as the factory gets smarter. The leaders of a smart factory should be more like aircraft pilots who are trained and equipped with instrumentation and checklists to continue operations should a fault occurs. This is a vital progression of the operational resilience of a smart factory in Industry 4.0.
Therefore, there is a need for an Operational Resilience Dashboard. Similar to the aircraft cockpit, the Operational Resilience Dashboard provides visibility and supports management decision for operational resilience through the phases of Normal Operations, Hidden Errors, Failure, Disruption and Continuity. It offers a language and terminology to communicate resilience amongst all stakeholders. It graphically describes the organisation and smart factory in the dimension of resilience.
* Marr, Bernard. "Why Everyone Must Get Ready for the 4th Industrial Revolution". Forbes.
The Intersection of Operational Resilience and Cyber Resilience
There is a strong intersection between operational resilience and cyber resilience. While cybersecurity is focused on the protection of the system from cyber-attacks, both operational resilience and cyber resilience addresses the continuity of services regardless of the cause of the disruption.
Our strategy is to be able to continue operations despite a cyber-attack. This is shown in the diagram.
There are three main forms of cyber-attacks for malicious gain – two related the data or document (steal by copying the data or document and cause disruption by altering the data or document) and cause a disruption in the service. Both operational resilience and cyber resilience aims to continue operations despite a malicious attack or failure.
Hence our Resilience Framework is effective for both operational resilience and cyber resilience.